The hay in art database has grown to over six thousand images. The essays initially were intended to illustrate both the changing technology of hay making and the ways in which hay has been used by artists and writers of the last two millennia. Here is a briefly annotated outline of the work done so far.
A database of hay images is constantly growing. By early 2005 it contained over 4200 works of art and documentary photographs, both amateur and professional. Comments and suggestions, especially of images I have overlooked, will be most welcome.
Mistakes and missed stacks: separating hay from the straw and other heaps.
(William Carlos Williams, Limbourg Brothers, Durer, Bodmeer, Morland, Stubbs, Veyrassat, Monet, Caillebotte, Angrand)
Hay in winter.
(Pissarro, Fisher, Clausen, Inness, Salisbury, Allen, Sebron, Billotte, Milne, Duncan, Brownell, Fox, Currier and Ives)
Hay on water.
(Chambers, Van Goyen, Van Ruisdael, Dubbels, Nicolle, Cooke, Serres, Haden , Menpes, Turner, De Wint, Weissenbruck, Breton, Veyrassat, Beretta, Koekkoek, Leickert, Crawford, Jongkind, Redmore, Nibbs, Roux, Brown, Thurlo, Hittell)
Roles in the hay (work).
(over sixty paintings and photographs illustrating the work of women in the making and moving of hay, including images by Limbourg, Bening, Breu, Bruegel, Rubens, Stubbs, Wilson, Venetsianov, Millet, Homer, Gauguin, Dupre, Dessar)
Roles in the hay (work).(over thirty paintings and photographs illustrating the association of women with pleasure, pathos, pinups and other play in the hay, including the works of Altdorfer, Fragonard, Rowlandson, Van de Velde, Wheatley, Ratclyffe, Dahling, Homer, Goya, Palmer, Allingham, and poses by J. Russell, R. Russell, and others)
Dixton Manor haymaking: a visual encyclopedia.
(a detailed description of the haymaking activities of over a hundred people in an early 18th century landscape panorama by an unknown artist)
Montana wedding bales.
(a firsthand report on two Montana weddings, very different in character, but both using hay-bales as rustic pews)
From Wales to Wisdom: wet and dry hay in the west.
(an account of two contrasting technologies for harvesting fodder, the first in the wet west of Britain, the second in the dry west of the United States)
Introduction to the poetry of hay.
Hay poetry checklist.
Early hay poems from Lydgate to Hood.
Hay poems in the vernacular of William Barnes.
Hay poets born in the early nineteenth century.
Marsh hay poems of J. F. Herbin.
Frost on the hay.
Hay poets born in the late nineteenth century.
Hay poems of Hughes and Heaney.
Twentieth century hay poets born before 1940.
Hay poems of the late twentieth century.
Poetry in popular magazines since 1789.
Hay in the margins: from Byzantine illumination to Books of Hours.
Hay in the manger: humble wisps in early Nativity scenes.
(Pourbus, Pordenone, Murillo, Le Nain, Tiepolo)
High summer of the Dutch landscape: hay as seasonal metaphor
(Bruegel, Grimmer, Wildens, Rubens, Van Goyen, Bril)
Just as hay brought summer nourishment into the winter stables of their animals, paintings of hay brought the memory of warmer seasons into the chilly homes of the Dutch urban bourgeoisie. There is a pot of golden hay at the end of Rubens’ rainbow.
Hay sheds in art from Rembrandt to Heade.
(Van Goyen, Rembrandt, Van Ruisdael, Heade, Breman, Jacques, Flint, Holtrup [nd], Knipscheer [nd])
The relative absence of hay from the Italian landscape.
(Abbate’s grain, hayatus until I Machaoli: Fattori, Lega, Cabianca, Sernesi, Boldini, Nomellini, Nittis)
Hay in some 18th century English farm scenes
(Stubbs, Gainsborough, Wheatley, Morland, Ward)
Hay in 19th century landscape painting: diverse regions, styles and schools
(Britain: Turner, Constable, Cox, Cole [nd], Brown (1855), Clausen (1904)
(America: Mount, Homer, Remington [nd], Hudson (1859), Durrie (1862), Heade (1860s-90s), Shattuck (1870), Hahn (1871), Tryon (1887), Robinson (1889), Bannister (1893)
(France: Rousseau, Barbizon School, Hedouin (1852), Anastasi (1852), Bonheur (1855), Daubigny (1856), Corot (1870s), Chambellan (1872), Millet (1874),
Hay and mid-nineteenth-century sentimentalism.
(Currier and Ives, Gerard, Foster [nd], Allingham [nd]
Hay in the London suburbs.
(City of London Collage collection)
Making light of hay: Luminism and Impressionism.
(Heade, Pissarro, Monet, Sisley (1891), Angrand, Finch, Clausen (c1880+), Wendel (1887), Dessar (1894)
Hay makers: heroic and humble.
(Bullard, Millet (1850), Morgan (nd), Cole [nd], Breton (1856, 1884), Hicks (1863), Homer (1864), Radclyffe (1870), Dupre (any), Lhermitte (1887), Deyrolle [nd], Allingham [nd], Pissarro (most), Van Gogh (many), Clausen (1891), Dessar (1892), Munch, Moses, Paradise (1935), Ozols (1970), Tatarnikov (1985), Suruvka (1997), Smith [nd])
Hay makers at rest.
(Mount, Millet (1848), Belly (1863), Radclyffe (1870), Allingham (1874), Bastien-LePage (1877), Morgan (1879), Guillaumin (1889), Van Gogh, Pissarro(1891&1899), Toulouse, Lhermitte (1908), Forbes (1915) Blampied (1920), Schreiber (1939), Costigan (1940))
(Renoir (1885), Gauguin, Bernard (1888, 1892), Puigaudeau, Levitan, Dow, Altinck, Pott, Rice [nd], Derain, Nolde, Benton, Farnsworth(1935), Downing, Brauckman [nd], Dawson [nd], Evans [nd], Ferguson [nd], Knaub [nd], Mondelli [nd], Redon [nd], Thompson [nd], Fomin [nd] )
Nature morte: haystacks as architecture and still-lifes.
(Caillebotte (c1874), Redon (by 1890), Weir [nd], Morandi, Blanch (1938), Lucioni (1947), Nason (1949), Wyeth, Medearis (1994), Sultan (1998), Bray (2000), Buell [nd], Burtt [nd], Delleany [nd], Hall [nd], Haskell [nd], Hrastnik [nd]), Lothian [nd], McIntosh [nd], Slater [nd], Smith [nd]
Hay in the city.
(Shepherd (1840), Bellows (1911), Brownell (1916))
Black and white nostalgia: 20th century hay engravings
(Soper [nd], Nicolson [nd], Raverat (1930s), Pellew, Haskins, Schmutzer, Hassam (1920), Geary (1935), Petersen, Wilson (1935), Lankes (1936), DeMartelly (1943), Nason (1946), Schreiber (1946), Hornby (1950), Buell [nd], Delleany [nd], Haskell [nd], Leighton [nd]
Hay under the threat of incoming storms.
(Heade, Moses, Curry, New Yorker cover from 1945)
Russian hay: the socialist realists.
(Pimonenko, Mylnikov (1950), Vasilev (1951), Lyashchenko (1953),Nechitailo (1958),
Stack series: post-Monet hay.
(Monet, Breck (1891), Mondrian, Lichtenstein, Tansey (1981), Muniz (2001), Cotton (2003), Scoppettone (2003))
(Malevich, Goncharova, Altinck, Tanner(1930), Dove(1931), Basmanov, Gross (1956), Oliviera (1958), Vaughan (1959), Trevelyan (1972), Self (1983), Allen (1986), Pike (1998), Sulymenko (1999), Koper (2002), Hayes [nd]
Huge hay days: stacks dwarfing their creators.
(Raverat, Moynihan (1940), Bravo(photog), Smith [nd]
Postmodern monumentalism: a few haybale follies.
(Holdsworth (1987), Dolack, Cook)
Hay art in three dimensions: sculpture and architecture.
(Guillaume, Picasso, Noguchi, Hanson, Mockbee, Otterness)
Hay in early photography.
(Talbot, Ault, Robinson, B. B. Turner, Taunt, Sutcliffe, Emerson, Watkins)
The photogeography of haymaking.
(several hundred images from over 50 countries, over the last hundred years, including the work of Hine, Hagemeyer, Weston, Lange, Rothstein, Alvarez Bravo, Hoppe, Bristol, Rowell and dozens of others previously less well known to us)